The decolorization effect by Aspergillus sp. 3 on Goldfish opercular beats

Ratna Stia Dewi(1*), Fitria Ayudi Ulfimaturahmah(2), Khusnul Khotimah(3)

(1) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto 53122, Indonesia.
(2) Post-graduate student, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto 53122, Indonesia.
(3) Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 3, Cilacap 53282, Indonesia.
(*) Corresponding Author


Batik effluent had high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Dye decolorization is a process used to reduce color density. Fungi which used for decolorization was Aspergillus sp 3. This study aimed to investigate the ability of fungi on decolorization of 3 kinds of batik effluents (Indigosol Green dye, Indigosol Purple dye, and Naphtol Black dye) and to investigate the ability of fungi on reducing TDS level. The study was also investigated the initial toxicity of batik effluents to Goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). Decolorization was measured by spectrophotometry, the pH value was measured by pH meter, and the TDS value was measured by TDS meter. In addition, the decolorized batik effluent was tested for toxic effect on C. carpio by total opercular beats. Decolorization assay showed that Aspergillus sp. 3 had the ability to decolorized only 2 kinds of batik effluents. The decolorization percentage of Indigosol Purple was 60.015% and Naphtol Black was 56.679%. The pH after treatment decreased from 8.5–9 to 5.3–6. The range of pH value of Indigosol Green, Indigosol Purple, and Naphtol Black 5.3–6. Besides that, Aspergillus sp. 3 also had the ability to reduce the TDS level in the effluent. The TDS level on Indigosol Green, Indigosol Purple, and Naphtol Black as 4,965%, 25,307%, and 15,129%, respectively. Initial toxicity assay of effluent to C. carpio showed that there was a difference of total opercular beats, which exposed by decolorized and before decolorized batik effluent. The total opercular beats of C. carpio on decolorized batik effluents showed high value than before decolorized batik effluents. It can be concluded that Aspergillus sp. 3 had the ability to decolorize and decreasing the initial toxicity of Indigosol Purple batik effluents on C. carpio.


Aspergillus sp 3. Cyprinus carpio, decolorization, opercular beats, TDS.

Full Text:



Aksu, Z., 2005. Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochemistry. 40, 997–1026.

Ali, N., Hameed, A., Siddiqui, M. F., Ghumro, P. B., & Ahmed, S., 2009. Application of Aspergillus niger SA1 for the enhanced bioremoval of azo dyes in Simulated Textile Effluent. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(16), 3839-3845.

Asses, N., Ayed, L., Hkiri, N., & Hamdi, M., 2018. Congo Red Decolorization and Detoxification by Aspergillus niger: Removal Mechanisms and Dye Degradation Pathway. BioMed Research International, 2018, 1-9, DOI: 10.1155/2018/3049686.

Awasthi, M. K., Pandey, A. K., Bundela, P. S., Wong, J. W., & Selvam, A., 2014. Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for organic municipal solid waste composting. Bioresources Technology, 168, 214–221.

Banat, I. M., Nigam, P., & Singh, D., 1996. Microbial decolourization of textile-dye containing effluents: a review. Bioresources Technology, 58:217–227.

Capkin, E, Altmok, I, & Karahan, S., 2006. Water quality and fish size affect toxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, to Rainbow trout. Chemosphere, 64, 1793-1800.

Dewi, R. S., & Lestari, S., 2010. Dekolorisasi Limbah Batik Tulis Menggunakan Jamur Indigenous Hasil Isolasi Pada Konsentrasi Limbah Yang Berbeda. Molekul, 5(2), 75 – 82.

Dewi, R. S., Kasiamdari, R. S., Martani, E., & Purwestri, Y. A., 2018a. Decolorization and detoxification of batik dye effluent containing Indigosol Blue-04B using fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent. Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology, 23(2), 2018, 54-60. DOI: 10.22146/ijbiotech.32332.

Dewi, R. S., Kasiamdari, R. S., Martani, E., & Purwestri, Y. A., 2018b. Bioremediation of Indigosol Blue 04B Batik Effluent by Indigenous Fungal Isolates, Aspergillus spp. Omni-Akuatika, 14 (2) : 11 – 20.

Dewi, R. S., Kasiamdari, R. S., Martani, E., & Purwestri, Y. A. 2019a. Optimization of the conditions for the decolorization of batik wastewater by Aspergillus sp. 3. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2094, No. 1, p. 020036). AIP Publishing.

Dewi, R. S., Kasiamdari, R. S., Martani, E., & Purwestri, Y. A. 2019b. Efficiency of Aspergillus sp. 3 to reduce chromium, sulfide, ammonia, phenol, and fat from batik wastewater. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 308, No. 1, p. 012003). IOP Publishing.

Dewi, R. S., Ilyas, M., & Sari, A. A. 2019c. Ligninolitic Enzyme Immobilization from Pleurotus ostreatus for Dye and Batik Wastewater Decolorization. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(2), 220-229.

Ferreira, V. S., Magalhaes, D. B., Kling, S. H., Silva, J. G., & Bon, E. P. E., 2000. N-demethylation of methylene blue by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Stoichiometric relation for H2O2 consumption. Applied Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 4(86): 255-265.

Fu, Y. Z., & Viraraghavan, T., 2000. Removal of a dye from aqueous solution by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 35: 95- 111.

Ghoreishi, S. M., & Haghighi, R., 2003. Chemical catalytic reaction and biological oxidation for treatment of non-biodegradable textile effluent. Chemistry Engineering Journal, 95(1–3):163–169

Gola, D,, Namburath, M., & Kumar. R., 2015. Decolourization of the Azo dye (direct brilliant blue) by the isolated bacterial strain. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 2, pp.1462–1465.

Hameed, B. H., Mahmoud, D. K., & Ahmad, A. L., 2008. Sorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel in a batch system, Colloids Surf. A: Physicochemisty Engineering Aspects, 316, 78–84.

Hefnawy, M. A., Gharieb, M. M., Shaaban, M. T. & Soliman, A. M., 2017. Optimization of Culture Condition for Enhanced Decolorization of Direct blue Dye by Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium canescens. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 7(2), pp. 83-92,

Kanagaraj, J., & Mandal, A. B. 2011. Combined biodegradation and ozonation for removal of tannins and dyes for the reduction of pollution loads. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19(1), 42–52. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0534-0.

Karim, E., Dhar, K., & Hossain, T., 2016. Co-metabolic decolorization of a textile reactive dye by Aspergillus fumigatus. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. DOI: 10.1007/s13762-016-1136-7.

Kaushik, P., & Malik, A., 2009. Fungal dye decolourization: recent advances and future

potential. Environment International, 35, 127–141.

Khandare, R. V., & Govindwar, S. P. 2015. Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: Current scenario and future prospects. Biotechnology Advances, 33(8), 1697–1714. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.09.003.

Kyzas, G. Z., Fu, J., & Matis, K. A., 2013. The Change From Past to Future for Adsorbent Materials in Treatment of Dyeing Wastewaters. Materials, 6(11), pp. 5131–5158.

Mishra, A., & Malik, A., 2013. Recent advances in microbial metal bioaccumulation.

Critical Reviews in Enviromental Science and Technology, 43, 1162–1222. DOI:

Nainasivayam, C., & Kadirvelu, K., 1994. Coir pith, an agricultural waste by-product for the treatment of dying wastewater, Bioresources Technology. 48, 79–81.

Namdhari, B. S., Rohilla, S. K., Salar, R. K., Gahlawat, S. K.,Bansal, P. & Saran, A.K., 2012. Decolorization of Reactive Blue MR, using Aspergillus species Isolated from Textile Waste Water. ISCA Journal of Biological Science,1(1), 24-29.

Ncibi, M.C., Mahjoub,B., Seffen, M., 2007. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of methylene blue biosorption by Posidonia oceanica (L) fibers, Journal of Hazardous Material, 280–285.

Pophali G, Kaula S, Mathur S. Influence of hydraulic shock loads and TDS on the performance of large-scale CETPs treating textile effluents in India. Water Research, 37, 353–61.

Saeeda, A., Iqbal, M., & Zafar, S. I., 2009. Immobilization of Trichoderma viride for enhanced methylene blue biosorption: Batch and column studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 406–415.

Schiegel, H. G. & Schmit, K. 1994. Mikrobiologi Umum. Diterjemahkan oleh Baskoro, R. M dan Watemena, J. R., Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Singh, S., & Mishra, R. N., 2009. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides residues in Kuano river of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30:467-468.

Tantarpale, V. T., Rathod, S. H., & Kapil, S., 2012. Temperature Stress on Opercular Beats and Respiratory Rate of Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(12), 1-5.

Wang, X. S., Zhou, Y., Jiang, Y., Sun, C., 2008. The removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions using agricultural by-products, Journal of Hazardous Material. 157, 374–385.

Wesenberg, D., Kyriakides, I., Agathos, S. N., 2003. White-rot fungi and their enzymes for the treatment of industrial dye effluents. Biotechnology Advances, 22: 161-187

Wong, Y. X., & Yu, J., 1999. Laccase catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes. Water Research, 33: 3512-3520.

Zheng, Z., Levin, R. E., Pinkham, J. L., Shetty, K., 1999. Decolorization of polymeric dyes by a novel Penicillium isolate. Process Biochemistry. 34: 31- 37.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 142 | views : 50


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2019 by Indonesian Culture Collection (InaCC), Research Center for Biology
Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Cibinong Science Center (CSC), Jln. Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM. 46 Cibinong 16911, West Java, Indonesia
Telp. +62-21-8761356, Fax. +62-21-8761357
Available online:
e-ISSN 2685-4430